Tenses in English grammar are one of the most important topics you should study thoroughly to become an expert in the English language.
In English Grammer, Tenses express time reference. Tenses are used to define the time of a verb.
There are three basic tenses; present, past and future. And these three tenses have four aspects (simple, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous), which express how an action relates to time.
|Present||Present Simple||Present Continuous||Present Perfect||Present Perfect Continuous|
|Past||Past Simple||Past Continuous||Past Perfect||Past Perfect Continuous|
|Future||Future Simple||Future Continuous||Future Perfect||Future Perfect Continuous|
Present Simple Tense
Present simple tense is also called Present Indefinite Tense. Present simple tense is used when an action occurs in the present or happens regularly.
Structure: Subject + Verb(V1/V5) + Object
I live in America.
He works there.
Does he work there?
Why do you study English?
Present Continuous Tense
We use present continuous tense when any work/action is still going on.
Structure: Subject + am/is/are + Verb(V4) + ing + Object
I am drinking beer right now.
We are having a party.
It is raining.
Present Perfect Tense
We use the present perfect tense when any work/action is completed, but the time period is uncertain.
Structure: Subject + has/have + verb(V3) + Object
I have visited India four times.
We have seen three Bollywood movies this week.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
The present perfect continuous tense is used when something started in the past but is still in continuation.
Structure: Subject + has been/have been + verb + ing + Object
I have been living here for one year.
She has been learning English for 6 months.
It has been raining since 5 p.m.
Past Simple Tense
Any work/action completed in the past.
Structure: Subject + V2 + Object
I played cricket with John last Sunday.
I visited Paris every year.
Past Continuous Tense
Past continuous tense is used when any work/action was ongoing for a certain period of time in the past.
Structure: Subject + was/were + verb(V4) + ing + Object
The children were shouting when the teacher came in.
It was raining when I left for work.
My mother was cooking food for me.
Past Perfect Tense
Any work/action that happened or was completed before another action/work in the past.
Structure: Subject + had + verb(V3) + Object
When we got to the stadium, the match had started.
The train had left before they arrived.
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past perfect continuous tense tells us about any work/action started in the past and ended with a specific time clause. In the past perfect continuous tense, the first past action is a continuous one.
Structure: Subject + had been + verb + ing + Object
She had been waiting for two hours when her lover finally arrived.
Future Simple Tense
Future simple tense is used when any work/action will happen in future.
Structure: Subject + shall/will + verb + Object
I am going to buy a cricket bat.
John is going to open a liquid shop.
Future Continuous Tense
Future continuous tense expresses a work/action that is ongoing in the future.
Structure: Subject + shall be/will be + verb + ing + Object
At 10 a.m. tomorrow, I will be going to the office.
Future Perfect Tense
The future perfect tense is used when any work/action will be completed within a specific time in future.
Structure: Subject + shall have/will have + verb(V3) + Object
By June, I will have saved $1000.
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
We use future perfect continuous tense when any work/action started in the past and still going to the present and also will continue in future.
Structure: Subject + shall have been/will have been + verb + ing + Object
I shall have been living in this house for 5 years when I get married.
Construction of Tenses
Here is the different construction of the three tenses (present, past, future) using various aspects.
|Present||do(es)||am/is/are doing||have/has done||have/has been doing|
|Past||did||was/were doing||had done||had been doing|
|Future||will do||will be doing||will have done||will have been doing|